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ECO 305 WEEK 5 QUIZ 4 CHAPTER 7

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ECO 305 WEEK 5 QUIZ 4 CHAPTER 7

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following is not a major factor that encourages developing nations to form international commodity agreements?
a. Inelastic commodity supply schedules
b. Inelastic commodity demand schedules
c. Export markets that tend to be unstable
d. Secular increases in their terms of trade

2. International commodity agreements do not:
a. Consist of consuming and producing nations who desire market stability
b. Levy export cutbacks so as to offset rising commodity prices
c. Utilize buffer stocks to generate commodity price stability
d. Increase the supply of commodities to prevent rising prices

3. Concerning the price elasticities of supply and demand for commodities, empirical estimates suggest that most commodities have:
a. Inelastic supply schedules and inelastic demand schedules
b. Inelastic supply schedules and elastic demand schedules
c. Elastic supply schedules and inelastic demand schedules
d. Elastic supply schedules and elastic demand schedules

4. If the demand schedule for bauxite is relatively inelastic to price changes, an increase in the supply schedule of bauxite will cause a:
a. Decrease in price and a decrease in sales revenue
b. Decrease in price and an increase in sales revenue
c. Increase in price and a decrease in sales revenue
d. Increase in price and an increase in sales revenue

5. A primary goal of international commodity agreements has been the:
a. Maximization of members’ revenues via export taxes
b. Nationalization of corporations operating in member nations
c. Adoption of tariff protection against industrialized nation sellers
d. Moderation of commodity price fluctuations when markets are unstable

6. Which device has the International Tin Agreement utilized as a way of stabilizing tin prices?
a. Multilateral contracts
b. Export subsidies
c. Buffer stocks
d. Export tariffs

7. Which method has not generally been used by the international commodity agreements to stabilize commodity prices?
a. Production quotas applied to the level of commodity output
b. Buffer stock arrangements among producing nations
c. Export restrictions applied to international sales of commodities
d. Measures to nationalize foreign-owned production operations

8. The OPEC nations during the 1970s manifested their market power by utilizing:
a. Export tariffs levied for revenue purposes
b. Export tariffs levied for protective purposes
c. Import tariffs levied for protective purposes
d. Import tariffs levied for revenue purposes

9. One factor that has prevented the formation of cartels for producers of commodities is that:
a. The demand for commodities tends to be price inelastic
b. Substitute products exist for many commodities
c. Commodity produces have been able to dominate world markets
d. Production of most commodities is capital intensive

10. Which device has been used by the International Wheat Agreement to stipulate the minimum prices at which importers will buy stipulated quantities from producers and the maximum prices at which producers will sell stipulated quantities to importers?
a. Buffer stocks
b. Export controls
c. Multilateral contracts
d. Production controls

11. If the bauxite exporting countries form a cartel to boost the price of bauxite so as to increase sales revenue, they believe that the demand for bauxite:
a. Is inelastic with respect to price changes
b. Is elastic with respect to price changes
c. Will increase in response to a price increase
d. Will not change in response to a price change

12. If the supply schedule for tin is relatively inelastic to price changes, a decrease in the demand schedule for tin will cause a:
a. Decrease in price and an increase in sales revenue
b. Decrease in price and a decrease in sales revenue
c. Increase in price and an increase in sales revenue
d. Increase in price and a decrease in sales revenue

13. Which of the following could partially explain why the terms of trade of developing countries might deteriorate over time?
a. Developing-country exports mainly consist of manufactured goods
b. Developing-country imports mainly consist of primary products
c. Commodity export prices are determined in highly competitive markets
d. Commodity export prices are solely determined by developing countries

14. Which terms-of-trade concept emphasizes a nation’s capacity to import?
a. Income terms of trade
b. Commodity terms of trade
c. Barter terms of trade
d. Price terms of trade

15. Which trade strategy have developing countries used to restrict imports of manufactured goods so that the domestic market is preserved for home producers, who thus can take over markets already established in the country?
a. International commodity agreement
b. Export promotion
c. Multilateral contract
d. Import substitution

16. Which trade strategy have developing countries used to replace commodity exports with exports such as processed primary products, semi-manufacturers, and manufacturers?
a. Multilateral contract
b. Buffer stock
c. Export promotion
d. Export quota

17. To help developing countries expand their industrial base, some industrial countries have reduced tariffs on designated manufactured imports from developing countries below the levels applied to imports from industrial countries. This scheme is referred to as:
a. Generalized system of preferences
b. Export-led growth
c. International commodity agreement
d. Reciprocal trade agreement

18. Which nation accounts for the largest amount of OPEC’s oil reserves and production?
a. Iran
b. Libya
c. Iraq
d. Saudi Arabia

19. Assuming identical cost and demand curves, OPEC as a cartel will, in comparison to a competitive industry:
a. Produce greater output and charge a lower price
b. Produce greater output and charge a higher price
c. Produce less output and charge a higher price
d. Produce less output and charge a lower price

20. Which of the following situations reduces the likelihood of successful operation of a cartel?
a. Cartel sales experience a rapid expansion
b. The demand for cartel output is price inelastic
c. The number of firms in the cartel is large
d. It is very difficult for new firms to enter the market

21. Which industrialization policy used by developing countries places emphasis on the comparative advantage principle as a guide to resource allocation?
a. Export promotion
b. Import substitution
c. International commodity agreements
d. Multilateral contract

22. A widely used indicator to differentiate developed countries from developing countries is:
a. International trade per capita
b. Real income per capita
c. Unemployment per capita
d. Calories per capita

23. Concerning the hypothesis that there has occurred a long-run deterioration in the developing countries’ terms of trade, empirical studies provide:
a. Mixed evidence that does not substantiate the deterioration hypothesis
b. Overwhelming support for the deterioration hypothesis
c. Overwhelming opposition to the deterioration hypothesis
d. None of the above

24. For the oil-importing countries, the increases in oil prices in 1973-1974 and 1979-1980 resulted in all of the following except:
a. Balance of trade deficits
b. Price inflation
c. Constrained economic growth
d. Improving terms of trade

25. Hong Kong and South Korea are examples of developing nations that have recently pursued industrialization policies.
a. Import substitution
b. Export promotion
c. Commercial dumping
d. Multilateral contract

26. Stabilizing commodity prices around long-term trends tends to benefit importers at the expense of exporters in markets characterized by:
a. Demand-side disturbances
b. Supply-side disturbances
c. Demand-side and supply-side disturbances
d. None of the above

27. Stabilizing commodity prices around long-term trends tends to benefit exporters at the expense of importers in markets characterized by:
a. Demand-side disturbances
b. Supply-side disturbances
c. Demand-side and supply-side disturbances
d. None of the above

28. To be considered a good candidate for an export cartel, a commodity should:
a. Be a manufactured good
b. Be a primary product
c. Have a high price elasticity of supply
d. Have a low price elasticity of demand

29. To be considered a good candidate for an export cartel, a commodity should:
a. Be a manufactured good
b. Be a primary product
c. Have a low price elasticity of supply
d. Have a high price elasticity of demand

30. To help developing nations strengthen their international competitiveness, many industrial nations have granted nonreciprocal tariff reductions to developing nations under the:
a. International commodity agreements program
b. Multilateral contract program
c. Generalized system of preferences program
d. Export-led growth program

31. Consider Figure 7.1. Suppose the demand for tin increases from D0 to D1. Under a buffer stock system, the buffer-stock manager could maintain the target price by:
a. Selling 15 pounds of tin
b. Selling 30 pounds of tin
c. Buying 15 pounds of tin
d. Buying 30 pounds of tin

32. Consider Figure 7.1. Suppose the demand for tin decreases from D0 to D2. Under a buffer stock system, the buffer-stock manager could maintain the target price by:
a. Selling 15 pounds of tin
b. Selling 30 pounds of tin
c. Buying 15 pounds of tin
d. Buying 30 pounds of tin

33. Consider Figure 7.1. Suppose the demand for tin decreases from D0 to D2. Under a system of export quotas, the tin producers could maintain the target price by:
a. Increasing the quantity of tin supplied by 15 pounds
b. Increasing the quantity of tin supplied by 30 pounds
c. Decreasing the quantity of tin supplied by 15 pounds
d. Decreasing the quantity of tin supplied by 30 pounds

34. Consider Figure 7.2. Suppose the supply of tin increases from S0 to S1. Under a buffer stock system, the buffer-stock manager could maintain the target price by:
a. Purchasing 15 pounds of tin
b. Purchasing 30 pounds of tin
c. Selling 15 pounds of tin
d. Selling 30 pounds of tin

35. Consider Figure 7.2. Suppose the supply of tin decreases from S0 to S2. Under a buffer stock system, the buffer-stock manager could maintain the target price by:
a. Purchasing 15 pounds of tin
b. Purchasing 30 pounds of tin
c. Selling 15 pounds of tin
d. Selling 30 pounds of tin

36. Consider Figure 7.2. Assume there exists a cartel of several producers that is maximizing total profit. If one producer cheats on the cartel agreement by decreasing its price and increasing its output, rational action of the other producers is to:
a. Increase their price in order to regain sacrificed profits
b. Decrease their price as well
c. Keep on selling at the agreed-upon price
d. Give the product away for free

37. A reason why it is difficult for producers to maintain a cartel is that:
a. The elasticity of demand for the cartel’s output decreases over time
b. Producers in the cartel have the economic incentive to cheat
c. Economic profits discourage other producers from entering the industry
d. Producers in the cartel have the motivation to lower price but not to raise price

38. Once a cartel establishes its profit-maximizing price:
a. Entry into the industry of new competitors will not affect the cartel’s profits
b. Output changes by cartel members have no effect on the market price
c. Each cartel member is tempted to cheat on the cartel price in order to add to its profit
d. All cartel members have a strong incentive to adhere to the agreed-upon price

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