CJ 415 Final Exam Answers



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CJ 415 Final Exam Answers

CJ 415 Final Exam Answers


CJ 415 Final Exam Answers

Question 1. The ________ hypothesis regarding crime argues that as a country undergoes economic development, its crime rate increases.

  1. slippery slope
  2. globalization
  3. modernization
  4. transnational crime

Question 2. Generally, the police forces of any given country are much more likely to be dealing with ___________ crime and much less likely, if ever, to be dealing with _________ crime.

  1. transnational, international
  2. international, transnational
  3. national, global
  4. organized, international

Question 3. Offenses, whose inception, prevention, and/or direct or indirect effects involved more than one country is an example of:

  1. international
  2. transnational
  3. global
  4. world

Question 4. The process used by criminals to convert funds acquired illegally into what appears to be legitimate income that can the used for legal purposes such as investment and purchase, is an example of:

  1. bank fraud
  2. drug trafficking
  3. money laundering
  4. corruption

Question 5. The movement of mood altering substances from their points of origin to their points of consumption is an example of:

  1. drug trafficking
  2. drug laundering
  3. drug distribution
  4. corruption

Question 6. Although not in itself a crime, buying a legal business may be deemed ________, if it is used a means for laundering money that may have been acquired illegally.

  1. criminal
  2. illegal
  3. unethical
  4. morally wrong

Question 7. _______ crimes call for a great deal of ingenuity and versatility on the part of law enforcement in terms of learning, investigation, and prevention.

  1. sex
  2. cyber
  3. drug
  4. victimless

Question 8. Most victims of __________ theft are likely to be looking for recompense, and not criminal punishment, and therefore, not generally likely to involve police agencies.

  1. identity
  2. intellectual property
  3. property
  4. vehicle

Question 9. ____________ may be localized or may operate transnationally.

  1. drug trafficking
  2. illegal arms sales
  3. terrorism
  4. identity theft

Question 10. The illegal commandeering of ________ for the purpose of either demanding ransom payments or for making a political statement has been a feature of much of the late twentieth century.

  1. watercraft
  2. trains
  3. subway cars
  4. airplanes

Question 11. _____________ is an age-old offense, which is considered the first to result in multinational cooperative law enforcement efforts continues to exist in certain parts of the world, particularly in and around Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and West Africa.

  1. aircraft hijacking
  2. sea piracy
  3. terrorism
  4. treason

Question 12. ___________ is defined as the procurement of illegal entry of a person into a state of which the latter person is not a national with the objective of making a profit.

  1. illegal immigration
  2. prostitution
  3. human smuggling
  4. spying

Question 13. Transnational ____________ crime is a fact of contemporary life.

  1. drug
  2. environmental
  3. illegal arms
  4. terrorism

Question 14. Over the past 20 years, there has been a growing preoccupation with ____________ crime.

  1. transnational
  2. drug
  3. gang
  4. organized

Question 15. The most discussed and least understood international police organization in the world is:

  2. CIA
  4. BATFE

Question 16. The _________ by the police can be defined as occurring “any time the police attempt to have citizens act in a certain way.”

  1. brutality
  2. use of force
  3. authority
  4. corruption

Question 17. Incidents of police use of excessive force have included all except:

  1. deliberate choking
  2. beating civil rights protesters
  3. handcuffing
  4. deliberate kicking

Question 18. The philosophy of __________ police officers in which the police subculture becomes a way of life can thus lead to police misconduct.

  1. brother and sister
  2. us vs. them
  3. we have the power
  4. I am the law

Question 19. In the twentieth century, the United States Supreme Court, to protect citizens from governmental abuses from the states and their agents, extended the Bill of Rights to be applicable to the _____.

  1. police
  2. local governments
  3. states
  4. people

Question 20. The police __________ is an extreme version of a phenomenon that exists in many human groups.

  1. subculture
  2. thin blue line
  3. corruption
  4. code of silence

Question 21. Many people, specifically _________, believe that the police are often engaged in excessive and unnecessary physical force.

  1. government officials
  2. minority groups
  3. older citizens
  4. youth

Question 22. Some forms of police brutality have also been referred to as _________.

  1. the third degree
  2. throwing the book at them
  3. hazing
  4. us vs. them

Question 23. What made the King-beating incident significantly different from earlier alleged incidents of police brutality was that a private citizen __________ this incident.

  1. videotaped
  2. reported
  3. helped officers in
  4. helped King in

Question 24. The police can trace their authority to use _______ back to the Common Law of England, which was developed during the middle Ages.

  1. less than lethal
  2. force
  3. deadly force
  4. weapons

Question 25. In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the fleeing felon rule, which allowed police officers to use deadly force, i.e., to shoot to kill a suspect escaping from the scene of a crime. This historical case is:

  1. Brandenburg v. Ohio
  2. Tennessee v. Gardner
  3. Miranda v. Arizona
  4. Mapp v. Ohio

Question 26. Dysfunctional behavior such as police violence comes about when looking at police brutality from a ___________ perspective.

  1. conflict theorist
  2. functionalist
  3. interactionist
  4. emergent theorist

Question 27. The __________ perspective takes a critical stance and believes that the police represent the group that has power, prestige, and wealth in a given society.

  1. interactionist
  2. fundamentalist
  3. conflict
  4. democratic

Question 28. From a ____________ perspective, a lot of attention would be devoted to considering the nature and meanings of acts that are defined as police brutality or excessive use of force.

  1. conflict
  2. interactionist
  3. functionalist
  4. classical

Question 29. Based on a perceived increase in police violence, a ___________________ was established by the Israeli police in 1992.

  1. civilian complaint board
  2. commission of law enforcement abuse
  3. zero tolerance policy
  4. law prohibiting excessive force

Question 30. One whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination is the definition of a:

  1. subordinate group
  2. subculture
  3. parent group
  4. dominant group

Question 31. A __________ group is one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.

  1. suburbanite
  2. sub
  3. dominate
  4. focus

Question 32. __________ refers to an attitude that evaluates an individual member of a subordinate group negatively on the basis of certain negative characteristics that are associated with that group even if the individual does not conform to those expected characteristics.

  1. racism
  2. prejudice
  3. racial profiling
  4. ethnic bias

Question 33. One who harbors negative attitudes toward any particular subordinate group and will act negatively toward them can be referred to as a:

  1. unprejudiced nondiscriminator
  2. apartheid
  3. prejudiced discriminator
  4. subordinate group

Question 34. The most common pattern, based on perceived biological differences such as skin color, complexion, hair color, and or eye color is referred to as _________.

  1. racism
  2. prejudiced discriminator
  3. ethnic bias
  4. sexism

Question 35. Prejudice and discrimination that is based on cultural differences among groups, sometimes even if they are of the same race is the definition of:

  1. racial profiling
  2. ethnic bias
  3. prejudice
  4. discrimination

Question 36. The pattern of prejudice and discrimination that negatively targets either the young or the elderly is known as:

  1. discrimination
  2. ethnic bias
  3. apartheid
  4. ageism

Question 37. __________ is defined as a fairly rigid, oversimplified view or image of a particular social group that is then applied to individuals who belong to that group.

  1. ageism
  2. stereotyping
  3. heterosexism
  4. ethnic bias

Question 38. A process by which members of subordinate groups are blamed for the problems and frustrations experienced by members of the dominant group is an example of:

  1. scapegoating
  2. stereotyping
  3. ethnic bias
  4. cultural diversity

Question 39. Societies that are made up of more than one ethnic group are referred to as:

  1. dominate societies
  2. diverse societies
  3. plural societies
  4. multicultural societies

Question 40. When women are treated less harshly than male suspects by the police and the criminal justice system given traditional gender expectations and notions of them being the “weaker sex”, we are defining:

  1. sexism
  2. chivalry hypothesis
  3. stereotyping
  4. sexual bias

Question 41. Conduct which the people of a group are considered so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it is an example of:

  1. deviance
  2. police misconduct
  3. use of force
  4. corruption

Question 42. _____________ is when individuals who happen to be in the police force engage in activities that violate departmental policies, laws, and social norms and misuse the powers of their office.

  1. corruption
  2. occupational deviance
  3. deviance
  4. organizational deviance

Question 43. _____________ has been coined by sociologists to encompass serious situations occurring within entire organization. This behavior includes police brutality and corruption.

  1. occupational deviance
  2. the slippery slope
  3. organizational deviance
  4. deviance

Question 44. ___________ was a New York City police officer in the 1970s who fought against corruption.

  1. Donnie Brasco
  2. Frank Serpico
  3. Joe Pistone
  4. O.W. Wilson

Question 45. The ________ requires that police officers look the other way when they observe their fellow officers involved in acts of deviance.

  1. thin blue line
  2. code of the streets
  3. informal handbook
  4. code of silence

Question 46. ___________ can be explained as receiving money or some monetary gain for not performing a legal duty or responsibility by a police officer.

  1. organizational deviance
  2. corruption
  3. occupational deviance
  4. the slippery slope

Question 47. In the late 1990s, the ________________ experienced a corruption scandal that made national and international headlines.

  1. New York PD
  2. Los Angeles PD
  3. Chicago PD
  4. Philadelphia PD

Question 48. ____________ are payments in the form of money, goods, or services that a law enforcement agent receives for directing people, that he or she comes in contact with, toward a particular service provider.

  1. kickbacks
  2. payoffs
  3. bribes
  4. internal payoffs

Question 49. In the approximately 160-year history of the NYPD a major corruption scandal seems to occur approximately every _____ years.

  1. 10
  2. 20
  3. 15
  4. 30

Question 50. A grass eater is a officer who:

  1. does not actively seek out gratuities
  2. seeks out gratuities
  3. takes complaints to internal affairs
  4. refuses to accept gratuities